Examples of the Solubility of Compounds

1) In Experiment 11, adrenaline was added to a flask along with sulfuric acid and benzene. The mixture separated into two layers. One layer is aqueous and contains the sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid and water are polar and form hydrogen bonds, and are therefore miscible in one another. The other layer contains benzene and the organic product, which are not polar and thus not soluble in the water. Also, the organic layer will be separated by having a boiling point lower than that of the aqueous layer. The aqueous layer has a higher boiling point due to the stronger attractions of the hydrogen bonds.

2) In Experiment 14, the produced crude compound was washed with water and separated. Water was used to help separate the mixture due to the fact that it is not soluble with the organic layer. The attractions of the nonpolar organic layer do not have enough energy to break the attractions of the hydrogen bonds of the water and thus does not mix with it. The nonpolar substances dissolve in each other and the polar substances dissolve in each other, but the nonpolar substances and polar substances are not miscible. Any remaining substances, such as acid, would be separated out of the organic layer and into the water layer as the water and crude separated.